IDENTIFICATION AND USE: proteins in yeast is a common alternative to prokaryotic and higher eukaryotic expression. Yeast cells offer many of the advantages of producing proteins in microbes (growth speed, easy genetic manipulation, low cost media) while offering some of the attributes of higher eukaryotic systems (post translational modifications, secretory expression).
Several yeast protein expression systems exist in organisms from the genera Saccharomyces, Pichia,Kluyveromyces, Hansenula and Yarrowia.
HUMAN EXPOSURE/TOXCITY: study indicates that a significant factor in causing them may be the common bakers or brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in many vaccinations, including HepB, which is given to nearly all newborn babies in the United States before they’re a day old. The specific part of S. cerevisiae that’s of concern is mannan, which is found in the cell walls of yeasts and also in mammalian glycoproteins. These glycoproteins are found in cell walls, connective tissues like collagen, gastrointestinal mucous secretions, and blood plasma. They perform many functions. Obviously, if the immune system goes on the attack against mannan, it can be devastating. Yet, that appears to be happening in many autoimmune diseases. These diseases happen when the body’s own defense system turns on itself, resulting in life-eroding conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid syndrome, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus type 1, and even heart disease.
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has no doubt about the increase in autoimmune diseases and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has produced a nice document outlining their approach to dealing with it. The “Autoimmune Diseases Research Plan” discusses their approach to dealing with the issue, including the type of research they’re supporting. Nowhere is there any indication that vaccinations are being considered as a potential cause.
Yeast is, of course, used to make bread rise and create the alcohol in beer. So how can it suddenly turn into an enemy? The answer is in how it enters the body, and what enters with it. The purpose of a vaccine is to create a localized storm in the immune system so that it will respond to a co-injected substance, which may be a weakened microbe or a small bit of a microbe, by creating antibodies to it. An irritant, called an adjuvant, is what causes the immune system storm, and the microbe is called an antigen. The catch is that other substances injected with the antigen and adjuvant may also be seen as antigens.
If one of those substances is similar to something that naturally exists in the body, then the immune system may create antibodies to part of its own body, creating an autoimmune disease. Parts of the mannan in yeast are similar or identical to parts of the human body. So S. cerevisiae—yeast—used in vaccines has the potential of causing autoimmune disorders. In fact, S. cerevisiaeis used in a variety of ways in vaccines. It is, when used whole, a potent adjuvant. On top of that, genetic manipulation is now being used on it to create artificial antibodies, so S. cerevisiae is becoming more common in vaccines. The researchers who focused on autoimmune aspects of S. cerevisiae (yeast) found significant correlations between yeast’s mannan and known autoimmune antigens in several autoimmune diseases.
ADVERSE EFFECTS: they found close and, in some instances, exact matches of the genetic sequences. For example, in the case of rheumatoid arthritis, the percent found to match were:
- Rheumatoid factor: 60%
- Bip/GRP78: 71%
- gp130-RAPS: 80%
- EIF4G1: 88%
- Anti-citrullinated collagen type 2: 100%
Not only were there significant sequence matches with four known rheumatoid arthritis auto-antigens, there was a perfect match with one. In other conditions, they found:
- SmN: 53%
- SSA (Ro): 60%
- snRNP-SmD3: 64%
- SSB (La): 69%
- U2 snRNP B”: 83%
- P-selectin (protein on surface of blood vessels & platelets): 80%
- Myosin (involved with muscle contraction): 88%
- Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (inflammatory response molecules): 100%
- β2-Glycoprotein-1 precursor: 56%
- Annexin A5: 63%
- Anti-CL/β-2GPI Ig light chain variable region: 73%
- Thyroglubulin: 52%
- GAD65: 57%
- Zinc transporter 8: 57%
- Transglutaminase: 60%
- Thyroid peroxidase: 71%
- Soluble liver/pancreas antigen: 80%
- Calprotectin (protein S100-A8): 100%
- Major centromere autoantigen B: 57%
- RNA polymerase III: 67%
- U3-snRNP fibrillarin: 75%
- U3-snRNP MPP10: 75%
- hU3-55kDA: 86%
- Nucleophosmin B23: 88%
A perfect match with a molecule may not be necessary to result in an autoimmune response, so percentages of less than 100% may not indicate lack of an autoimmune response. However, the closer the match between a molecule and an antigen, the more likely it is that an autoimmune response will occur.
Although you may not generally think of heart disease as an autoimmune disorder, certain forms of it, such as rheumatic heart disease, are known to be—and as this study seems to indicate, others may be, too.
FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING VACCINES: HEP B (ENGERIX- B), HEP B (RECOMBIVAX), HPV( GARDASIL), PNEUMOCOCCAL (PCV13- PREVNAR), DTAP + HEP B + IPV (PEDIARIX), HIB + HEP B (COMVAX), HEP A + HEP B (TWINRIX), MENINGOCOCCAL (MCV4-MENOMUNE)