IDENTIFICATION AND USE: bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
This detergent also is used to supplement cell culture media and to prevent nonspecific binding in affinity chromatography. Sodium Deoxycholate is used to regenerate immobilized polymixin B (Detoxi-Gel D™ Endotoxin Removing Gel, ProductNo. 20339).
Immobilized polymixin B is an effective tool for removing endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide or LPS) from biological samples. Sodium Deoxycholate is the most effective reagent for removing LPS from immobilized polymixin B, allowing reuse of this ligand for additional endotoxin removal.” (128) “Bile acids are often refluxed into the lower oesophagus and are candidate carcinogens in the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma
HUMAN EXPOSURE/TOXICITY: deoxycholic acid (DCA), is the only one of the commonly refluxed bile acids tested here, to show genotoxicity, in terms of chromosome damage and mutation induction in the human p53 gene. This genotoxicity was apparent at both neutral and acidic pH, whilst there was a considerable increase in bile-induced toxicity at acidic pH. The higher levels of cell death and low cell survival rates at acidic pH may imply that acid bile exposure is toxic rather than carcinogenic, as dead cells do not seed cancer development. We also show that DCA (at neutral and acid pH) induced the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cytoplasm of exposed cells. The genotoxicity of DCA is ROS mediated, as micronucleus induction was significantly reduced when cells were treated with DCA + the anti-oxidant vitamin C. In conclusion DCA, is an effective genotoxin at both neutral and acidic pH. As bile acids like DCA can induce DNA damage at neutral pH, suppressing the acidity of the refluxate will not completely remove its carcinogenic potential. The genotoxicity of DCA is however, ROS dependent, hence anti-oxidant supplementation, in addition to acid suppression may block DCA driven carcinogenesis in Barrett’s patients. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a characteristic finding in common neurological disorders. Human data suggest BBB disruption may underlie cerebral dysfunction.
ANIMAL EXPOSURE/TOXICITY: experiments show the development of epileptiform activity following BBB breakdown. In the present study we investigated the neurophysiological, structural and functional consequences of BBB disruption. Adult rats underwent focal BBB disruption in the rat sensory-motor cortex using the bile salt sodium deoxycholate (DOC). Magnetic resonance imaging in-vivo showed an early BBB disruption with delayed reduction in cortical volume. This was associated with a reduced number of neurons and an increased number of astrocytes. In-vitro experiments showed that the threshold for spreading depression and the propagation velocity of the evoked epileptic potentials were increased 1 month after treatment. Furthermore, animals’ motor functions deteriorated during the first few weeks following BBB disruption. Treatment with serum albumin resulted in a similar cell loss confirming that the effect of DOC was due to opening of the BBB. Our findings suggest that delayed neurodegeneration and functional impairment occur following the development of the epileptic focus in the BBB-permeable cerebral cortex
ADVERSE EFFECTS: It is unclear what the side effects of Sodium Deoxycholate are, and it is not reviewed by the CIR or EWG. However, according to its MSDS, Sodium Deoxycholate is hazardous in case of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation. Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant). There was no information available on its potential carcinogenic or mutagenic effects.