IDENTIFICATION AND USE: to reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Neomycin Sulfate tablets and other antibacterial drugs, Neomycin Sulfate tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Neomycin Sulfate has been shown to be effective adjunctive therapy in hepatic coma by reduction of the ammonia-forming bacteria in the intestinal tract. The subsequent reduction in blood ammonia has resulted in neurologic improvement.
HUMAN EXPOSURE AND TOXICITY: Neomycin Sulfate is poorly absorbed from the normal gastrointestinal tract. The small absorbed fraction is rapidly distributed in the tissues and is excreted by the kidney in keeping with the degree of kidney function. The unabsorbed portion of the drug (approximately 97%) is eliminated unchanged in the feces.
Growth of most intestinal bacteria is rapidly suppressed following oral administration of Neomycin Sulfate, with the suppression persisting for 48 to 72 hours. Nonpathogenic yeasts and occasionally resistant strains of Enterobacter aerogenes (formerly Aerobacter aerogenes) replace the intestinal bacteria.
As with other aminoglycosides, the amount of systemically absorbed neomycin transferred to the tissues increases cumulatively with each repeated dose administered until a steady state is achieved. The kidney functions as the primary excretory path as well as the tissue binding site, with the highest concentration found in the renal cortex. With repeated dosings, progressive accumulation also occurs in the inner ear. Release of tissue-bound neomycin occurs slowly over a period of several weeks after dosing has been discontinued.
Protein binding studies have shown that the degree of aminoglycoside protein binding is low and, depending upon the methods used for testing, this may be between 0% and 30%.
MICROBIOLOGY: in vitro tests have demonstrated that neomycin is bactericidal and acts by inhibiting the synthesis of protein in susceptible bacterial cells. It is effective primarily against gram-negative bacilli but does have some activity against gram-positive organisms. Neomycin is active in vitro against Escherichia coli and the Klebsiella-Enterobacter group. Neomycin is not active against anaerobic bowel flora.
If susceptibility testing is needed, using a 30 mcg disc, organisms producing zones of 16 mm or greater are considered susceptible. Resistant organisms produce zones of 13 mm or less. Zones greater than 13 mm and less than 16 mm indicate intermediate susceptibility.
ADVERSE EFFECTS: the risk of hearing loss continues after drug withdrawal. Aminoglycosides can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics cross the placenta and there have been several reports of total irreversible bilateral congenital deafness in children whose mothers received streptomycin during pregnancy. Although serious side effects to fetus or newborn have not been reported in the treatment of pregnant women with other aminoglycosides, the potential for harm exists. Animal reproduction studies of neomycin have not been conducted. If neomycin is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
NURSING MOTHERS: it is not known whether neomycin is excreted in human milk, but it has been shown to be excreted in cow milk following a single intramuscular injection. Other aminoglycosides have been shown to be excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from the aminoglycosides in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
PEDIATRIC USE: the safety and efficacy of oral Neomycin Sulfate in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established. If treatment of a patient less than 18 years of age is necessary, neomycin should be used with caution and the period of treatment should not exceed two weeks because of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.
The most common adverse reactions to oral Neomycin Sulfate are nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. The “Malabsorption Syndrome” characterized by increased fecal fat, decreased serum carotene and fall in xylose absorption has been reported with prolonged therapy. Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and neuromuscular blockage have been reported
FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING VACCINES: DTAP + IPV (KINRIX), DTAP + HEP B + IPV (PEDIARIX), HEP A (HAVRIX), HEP A + HEP B (TWINRIX)