IDENTIFICATION AND USE: The molecular formula of potassium phosphate monobasic is KH2PO4. Potassium phosphate monobasic is a white, odourless, granular or crystalline powder, or colourless crystals. It is freely soluble in water and practically insoluble in alcohol. Apart from its essential role in bone structure, phosphate is also important in many metabolic and enzymatic pathways. It is involved in energy storage and transfer, the utilization of B-complex vitamins, the buffering of body fluids, and in the renal excretion of hydrogen ions.
HUMAN EXPOSURE AND TOXICITY: To avoid potassium or phosphorus intoxication, infuse solutions containing potassium phosphate slowly. In patients with severe renal or adrenal insufficiency, administration of potassium phosphate may cause potassium intoxication. Infusing high concentrations of phosphorus may cause hypocalcemia and calcium levels should be monitored.
Solutions which contain potassium ions should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with hyperkalemia, severe renal failure and in conditions in which potassium retention is present.
In patients with diminished renal function, administration of solutions containing potassium ions may result in potassium retention.
WARNING: THIS PRODUCT CONTAINS ALUMINUM THAT MAY BE TOXIC Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.
Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.
ADVERSE REACTIONS: involve the possibility of combined potassium and phosphorus intoxication from over dosage. The signs and symptoms of potassium intoxication include paresthesia of the extremities, flaccid paralysis, listlessness, mental confusion, weakness and heaviness of the legs, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, heart block, electrocardiographic abnormalities such as disappearance of P waves, spreading and slurring of the QRS complex with development of a biphasic curve and cardiac arrest. Phosphorus intoxication results in a reduction of serum calcium and the symptoms are those of hypocalcemic tetany.
In the event of over dosage, discontinue infusions containing potassium phosphate immediately and institute corrective therapy to restore depressed serum calcium and to reduce elevated serum potassium levels.
FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING VACCINES: INFLUENZA (FLUMIST), MMRV (PROQUAD), ZOSTER (SHINGLES-ZOSTAVAX)